Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) profiling can be used to identify parts of DNA that determine how cells in the eye develop. One such region, highlighted here in green in a developing mouse retina, directs cells to grow into rods; the red areas are for cones
DNA contains the instructions for every component, function, and life cycle of each individual cell. The DNA library is expansive and vast, but all cells in our body use the same template. So, how is it that different cells within our bodies can use the same DNA, or genome, to make so many different cell types? How can the same instructions direct the cells of the heart, of the eye, and of every other part of our bodies?
The COVID-19 virus is made out of RNA. Decoding how it actually functions is key to slowing or stopping the virus's path around the world
As scientists around the world race to decode the coronavirus that has caused more than 15,000 deaths in a matter of months, a group of University of Chicago chemists are focusing on understanding how the virus’s RNA works—which could translate to a more effective vaccine.
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Micrograph of laboratory-grown heart muscle cells. Fluorescent labeling shows mitochondria (red), cytoskeleton (green), and nuclei (blue).
Two University of Chicago scientists are part of an international team of researchers awarded a three-year, nearly $4 million grant to define every cell type in the human heart.
Much like babies at birth, stem cells harbor the magic of possibility. A stem cell has the potential to become a multitude of different adult cells within the body. It could eventually mature—or differentiate—into a fat cell or heart cell or nerve cell, for example.
Two University of Chicago research teams have received funding from The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust to contribute to building a Gut Cell Atlas, a collaborative effort that aims to define every type of cell in the human ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and colon.
Disease embeddings group different conditions by type and plot them in two-dimensional space to show how closely they are related to one another.
Physicians use standard disease classifications based on symptoms or location in the body to help make diagnoses. These classifications, called nosologies, can help doctors understand which diseases are closely related, and thus may be caused by the same underlying issues or respond to the same treatments.
Matthew Stephens has been named the Ralph W. Gerard Professor in the Departments of Statistics and Human Genetics and the College. Stephens’ research focuses on a wide variety of problems at the interface of statistics and genetics. His lab often tackles problems where novel statistical methods are required, or can learn something new compared with existing approaches. Much of that work involves developing new statistical methodologies, many of which have a non-trivial computational component.
University of Chicago scientist Chuan He found evidence that RNA itself modulates how DNA is transcribed—using a chemical process that is increasingly apparent to be vital to biology.
A group of University of Chicago scientists has uncovered a previously unknown way that our genes are made into reality.
Rather than directions going one-way from DNA to RNA to proteins, the latest study shows that RNA itself modulates how DNA is transcribed—using a chemical process that is increasingly apparent to be vital to biology. The discovery has significant implications for our understanding of human disease and drug design.
A transgenic C.elegans worm, where the motor neurons are labeled with two fluorescent reporters (green and red). Motor neurons are located on the under side of the worm, positioned one after the other, and appear as green and red dots. The top three panels are fluorescent images, and the bottom panel shows the actual animal together with the fluorescently labeled motor neurons.
Neurobiologist Paschalis Kratsios, PhD, senior author of the new study published in eLife, wanted to understand how different types of neurons maintain their functions over the lifetime of an organism.