Manyuan Long

Research Summary
Since my doctoral study in California in the early 1990s, I have been focusing on the study of a new and major scientific problem: How does a gene originate and evolve? The approaches I have developed and are being used to investigate the new gene problem include theoretical, computational, and molecular experimental approaches. We are currently exploring following scientific issues: *Evolution of gene expression networks by integration of new genes; *Phenotypic effects and functions of new genes; *Evolutionary analysis of gene interactions with new genes; *Copy number variation within Drosophila populations; *Evolution of sex chromosomes and sex-related genes; *Genes and Genomes in plants: high origination rate of chimeric genes in the grass family. Scientific impacts of our research: *The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) summarized my contribution when conferring me with a fellow honor (2014 AAAS Fellow) as, “You are being honored for distinguished contributions to the fields of molecular evolution and genetics, particularly for starting and leading the area of new gene evolution using experimental and computational genomics and molecular biology.” *Our discoveries have shaped chapters and sections about new gene evolution, in major textbooks of evolutionary biology (e.g. Douglas Futuyma, 2009 and 2005, Evolution, Sinauer, Massachusetts; Michael Lynch, 2007, The Origins of Genome Architecture, Sinauer, Massachesetts; Wen-Hsiung Li, 1997, Molecular Evolution, Sinauer, Massachusetts; Roderic Page and Edward Holmes, 1998, Molecular Evolution. Blackwell Science London). Societal impacts of our research: *Our scientific discovers and commentaries have been reported, in various languages, in New York Times, Washington Times, Chicago Tribune, Sacramento Bee, Huffington Post, La Vanguardia, The New Scientist, The Scientist, Discover, La Recherche, Wen Hui Bao, and other news media across the U.S., Europe, East Asia. *Research results summarized in a Nature Rev Genet article (Manyuan Long et al, 2003) were cited as major evidence for a successful defense of Amendment I to the United States Constitution, in the nationally covered case of Kitzmiller et al. vs. Dover Area School District in Pennsylvania, 2005.
Keywords
molecular evolution, evolutionary genetics, evolutionary novelties, sexual selection, adaptation, bioinformatics, new gene functions
Education
  • Sichuan Agricultural University , Sichuan, B.A. and M.S. Crop Plants and Genetics 01/2015
  • University of California at Davis, California, M.S. and Ph.D. Genetics and Evolution 12/1992
  • Harvard University, Cambridge Massachusetts, Postdoctoral Fellow Gene evolution and molecular biology 10/1997
Awards & Honors
  • 1993 - Allen Marr Prize The University of California at Davis
  • 1999 - Packard Fellow for Science & Engineering Davis & Lucile Packard Foundation
  • 2003 - CAREER Award National Science Foundation
  • 2011 - Inaugural Edna K Papazian Distinguished Service Professor The University of Chicago
  • 2014 - AAAS Fellow the American Association for the Advancement of Science
Publications
  1. Flynn JM, Long M, Wing RA, Clark AG. Evolutionary dynamics of abundant 7?bp satellites in the genome of Drosophila virilis. Mol Biol Evol. 2020 Jan 21. View in: PubMed

  2. Lee YCG, Ventura IM, Rice GR, Chen DY, Colmenares SU, Long M. Rapid Evolution of Gained Essential Developmental Functions of a Young Gene via Interactions with Other Essential Genes. Mol Biol Evol. 2019 10 01; 36(10):2212-2226. View in: PubMed

  3. Long M, Shen B. Evolution of genes and genomes: an emerging paradigm in life science. Sci China Life Sci. 2019 04; 62(4):435-436. View in: PubMed

  4. Zhang W, Gao Y, Long M, Shen B. Origination and evolution of orphan genes and de novo genes in the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Sci China Life Sci. 2019 Apr; 62(4):579-593. View in: PubMed

  5. Zu J, Gu Y, Li Y, Li C, Zhang W, Zhang YE, Lee U, Zhang L, Long M. Topological evolution of coexpression networks by new gene integration maintains the hierarchical and modular structures in human ancestors. Sci China Life Sci. 2019 Apr; 62(4):594-608. View in: PubMed

  6. Shao Y, Chen C, Shen H, He BZ, Yu D, Jiang S, Zhao S, Gao Z, Zhu Z, Chen X, Fu Y, Chen H, Gao G, Long M, Zhang YE. GenTree, an integrated resource for analyzing the evolution and function of primate-specific coding genes. Genome Res. 2019 04; 29(4):682-696. View in: PubMed

  7. Zhang L, Ren Y, Yang T, Li G, Chen J, Gschwend AR, Yu Y, Hou G, Zi J, Zhou R, Wen B, Zhang J, Chougule K, Wang M, Copetti D, Peng Z, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Ouyang Y, Wing RA, Liu S, Long M. Rapid evolution of protein diversity by de novo origination in Oryza. Nat Ecol Evol. 2019 04; 3(4):679-690. View in: PubMed

  8. Stein JC, Yu Y, Copetti D, Zwickl DJ, Zhang L, Zhang C, Chougule K, Gao D, Iwata A, Goicoechea JL, Wei S, Wang J, Liao Y, Wang M, Jacquemin J, Becker C, Kudrna D, Zhang J, Londono CEM, Song X, Lee S, Sanchez P, Zuccolo A, Ammiraju JSS, Talag J, Danowitz A, Rivera LF, Gschwend AR, Noutsos C, Wu CC, Kao SM, Zeng JW, Wei FJ, Zhao Q, Feng Q, El Baidouri M, Carpentier MC, Lasserre E, Cooke R, da Rosa Farias D, da Maia LC, Dos Santos RS, Nyberg KG, McNally KL, Mauleon R, Alexandrov N, Schmutz J, Flowers D, Fan C, Weigel D, Jena KK, Wicker T, Chen M, Han B, Henry R, Hsing YC, Kurata N, de Oliveira AC, Panaud O, Jackson SA, Machado CA, Sanderson MJ, Long M, Ware D, Wing RA. Publisher Correction: Genomes of 13 domesticated and wild rice relatives highlight genetic conservation, turnover and innovation across the genus Oryza. Nat Genet. 2018 11; 50(11):1618. View in: PubMed

  9. VanKuren NW, Long M. Gene duplicates resolving sexual conflict rapidly evolved essential gametogenesis functions. Nat Ecol Evol. 2018 04; 2(4):705-712. View in: PubMed

  10. Stein JC, Yu Y, Copetti D, Zwickl DJ, Zhang L, Zhang C, Chougule K, Gao D, Iwata A, Goicoechea JL, Wei S, Wang J, Liao Y, Wang M, Jacquemin J, Becker C, Kudrna D, Zhang J, Londono CEM, Song X, Lee S, Sanchez P, Zuccolo A, Ammiraju JSS, Talag J, Danowitz A, Rivera LF, Gschwend AR, Noutsos C, Wu CC, Kao SM, Zeng JW, Wei FJ, Zhao Q, Feng Q, El Baidouri M, Carpentier MC, Lasserre E, Cooke R, Rosa Farias DD, da Maia LC, Dos Santos RS, Nyberg KG, McNally KL, Mauleon R, Alexandrov N, Schmutz J, Flowers D, Fan C, Weigel D, Jena KK, Wicker T, Chen M, Han B, Henry R, Hsing YC, Kurata N, de Oliveira AC, Panaud O, Jackson SA, Machado CA, Sanderson MJ, Long M, Ware D, Wing RA. Genomes of 13 domesticated and wild rice relatives highlight genetic conservation, turnover and innovation across the genus Oryza. Nat Genet. 2018 02; 50(2):285-296. View in: PubMed

  11. Long M, Emerson JJ. Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation: Compensation by Gene Traffic. Curr Biol. 2017 07 10; 27(13):R659-R661. View in: PubMed

  12. Lee YCG, Yang Q, Chi W, Turkson SA, Du WA, Kemkemer C, Zeng ZB, Long M, Zhuang X. Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation Underlying Adult Foraging Behavior That Is Essential for Survival of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Biol Evol. 2017 05 01; 9(5):1357-1369. View in: PubMed

  13. Chen ZX, Oliver B, Zhang YE, Gao G, Long M. Expressed Structurally Stable Inverted Duplicates in Mammalian Genomes as Functional Noncoding Elements. Genome Biol Evol. 2017 Apr 01; 9(4):981-992. View in: PubMed

  14. Tan S, Cardoso-Moreira M, Shi W, Zhang D, Huang J, Mao Y, Jia H, Zhang Y, Chen C, Shao Y, Leng L, Liu Z, Huang X, Long M, Zhang YE. LTR-mediated retroposition as a mechanism of RNA-based duplication in metazoans. Genome Res. 2016 12; 26(12):1663-1675. View in: PubMed

  15. Zhang W, Landback P, Gschwend AR, Shen B, Long M. New genes drive the evolution of gene interaction networks in the human and mouse genomes. Genome Biol. 2015 Oct 01; 16:202. View in: PubMed

  16. Zhang YE, Long M. New genes contribute to genetic and phenotypic novelties in human evolution. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2014 Dec; 29:90-6. View in: PubMed

  17. Wang M, Yu Y, Haberer G, Marri PR, Fan C, Goicoechea JL, Zuccolo A, Song X, Kudrna D, Ammiraju JS, Cossu RM, Maldonado C, Chen J, Lee S, Sisneros N, de Baynast K, Golser W, Wissotski M, Kim W, Sanchez P, Ndjiondjop MN, Sanni K, Long M, Carney J, Panaud O, Wicker T, Machado CA, Chen M, Mayer KF, Rounsley S, Wing RA. The genome sequence of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and evidence for independent domestication. Nat Genet. 2014 Sep; 46(9):982-8. View in: PubMed

  18. Kemkemer C, Long M. New genes important for development. EMBO Rep. 2014 May; 15(5):460-1. View in: PubMed

  19. Zhang C, Gschwend AR, Ouyang Y, Long M. Evolution of gene structural complexity: an alternative-splicing-based model accounts for intron-containing retrogenes. Plant Physiol. 2014 May; 165(1):412-23. View in: PubMed

  20. Gao G, Vibranovski MD, Zhang L, Li Z, Liu M, Zhang YE, Li X, Zhang W, Fan Q, VanKuren NW, Long M, Wei L. A long-term demasculinization of X-linked intergenic noncoding RNAs in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Res. 2014 04; 24(4):629-38. View in: PubMed

  21. Long M, VanKuren NW, Chen S, Vibranovski MD. New gene evolution: little did we know. Annu Rev Genet. 2013; 47:307-33. View in: PubMed

  22. Chen S, Krinsky BH, Long M. New genes as drivers of phenotypic evolution. Nat Rev Genet. 2013 Sep; 14(9):645-60. View in: PubMed

  23. Zhang C, Wang J, Marowsky NC, Long M, Wing RA, Fan C. High occurrence of functional new chimeric genes in survey of rice chromosome 3 short arm genome sequences. Genome Biol Evol. 2013; 5(5):1038-48. View in: PubMed

  24. Zhang C, Wang J, Long M, Fan C. gKaKs: the pipeline for genome-level Ka/Ks calculation. Bioinformatics. 2013 Mar 01; 29(5):645-6. View in: PubMed

  25. Long M, Zhang L. Why rodent pseudogenes refuse to retire. Genome Biol. 2012 Nov 20; 13(11):178. View in: PubMed

  26. Ni X, Zhang YE, Nègre N, Chen S, Long M, White KP. Adaptive evolution and the birth of CTCF binding sites in the Drosophila genome. PLoS Biol. 2012; 10(11):e1001420. View in: PubMed

  27. Zhang YE, Landback P, Vibranovski M, Long M. New genes expressed in human brains: implications for annotating evolving genomes. Bioessays. 2012 Nov; 34(11):982-91. View in: PubMed

  28. Vibranovski MD, Zhang YE, Kemkemer C, VanKuren NW, Lopes HF, Karr TL, Long M. Segmental dataset and whole body expression data do not support the hypothesis that non-random movement is an intrinsic property of Drosophila retrogenes. BMC Evol Biol. 2012 Sep 05; 12:169. View in: PubMed

  29. Chen S, Spletter M, Ni X, White KP, Luo L, Long M. Frequent recent origination of brain genes shaped the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2012 Feb 23; 1(2):118-32. View in: PubMed

  30. Vibranovski MD, Zhang YE, Kemkemer C, Lopes HF, Karr TL, Long M. Re-analysis of the larval testis data on meiotic sex chromosome inactivation revealed evidence for tissue-specific gene expression related to the drosophila X chromosome. BMC Biol. 2012 Jun 12; 10:49; author reply 50. View in: PubMed

  31. Chen S, Ni X, Krinsky BH, Zhang YE, Vibranovski MD, White KP, Long M. Reshaping of global gene expression networks and sex-biased gene expression by integration of a young gene. EMBO J. 2012 Jun 13; 31(12):2798-809. View in: PubMed

  32. Wang J, Long M, Vibranovski MD. Retrogenes moved out of the z chromosome in the silkworm. J Mol Evol. 2012 Apr; 74(3-4):113-26. View in: PubMed

  33. Cardoso-Moreira M, Long M. The origin and evolution of new genes. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 856:161-86. View in: PubMed

  34. Cardoso-Moreira M, Emerson JJ, Clark AG, Long M. Drosophila duplication hotspots are associated with late-replicating regions of the genome. PLoS Genet. 2011 Nov; 7(11):e1002340. View in: PubMed

  35. Zhang YE, Landback P, Vibranovski MD, Long M. Accelerated recruitment of new brain development genes into the human genome. PLoS Biol. 2011 Oct; 9(10):e1001179. View in: PubMed

  36. Chen S, Yang H, Krinsky BH, Zhang A, Long M. Roles of young serine-endopeptidase genes in survival and reproduction revealed rapid evolution of phenotypic effects at adult stages. Fly (Austin). 2011 Oct-Dec; 5(4):345-51. View in: PubMed

  37. Chen M, Zou M, Fu B, Li X, Vibranovski MD, Gan X, Wang D, Wang W, Long M, He S. Evolutionary patterns of RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates. PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e21466. View in: PubMed

  38. Zhang YE, Vibranovski MD, Krinsky BH, Long M. A cautionary note for retrocopy identification: DNA-based duplication of intron-containing genes significantly contributes to the origination of single exon genes. Bioinformatics. 2011 Jul 01; 27(13):1749-53. View in: PubMed

  39. Chen ZX, Zhang YE, Vibranovski M, Luo J, Gao G, Long M. Deficiency of X-linked inverted duplicates with male-biased expression and the underlying evolutionary mechanisms in the Drosophila genome. Mol Biol Evol. 2011 Oct; 28(10):2823-32. View in: PubMed

  40. Chen Y, Dai H, Chen S, Zhang L, Long M. Highly tissue specific expression of Sphinx supports its male courtship related role in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 26; 6(4):e18853. View in: PubMed

  41. Zhang C, Wang J, Xie W, Zhou G, Long M, Zhang Q. Dynamic programming procedure for searching optimal models to estimate substitution rates based on the maximum-likelihood method. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 May 10; 108(19):7860-5. View in: PubMed

  42. Chen S, Zhang YE, Long M. New genes in Drosophila quickly become essential. Science. 2010 Dec 17; 330(6011):1682-5. View in: PubMed

  43. Fu B, Chen M, Zou M, Long M, He S. The rapid generation of chimerical genes expanding protein diversity in zebrafish. BMC Genomics. 2010 Nov 24; 11:657. View in: PubMed

  44. Zhang YE, Vibranovski MD, Landback P, Marais GA, Long M. Chromosomal redistribution of male-biased genes in mammalian evolution with two bursts of gene gain on the X chromosome. PLoS Biol. 2010 Oct 05; 8(10). View in: PubMed

  45. Zhang J, Yang H, Long M, Li L, Dean AM. Evolution of enzymatic activities of testis-specific short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase in Drosophila. J Mol Evol. 2010 Oct; 71(4):241-9. View in: PubMed

  46. Zhang YE, Vibranovski MD, Krinsky BH, Long M. Age-dependent chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes in Drosophila. Genome Res. 2010 Nov; 20(11):1526-33. View in: PubMed

  47. Vibranovski MD, Chalopin DS, Lopes HF, Long M, Karr TL. Direct evidence for postmeiotic transcription during Drosophila melanogaster spermatogenesis. Genetics. 2010 Sep; 186(1):431-3. View in: PubMed

  48. Cardoso-Moreira MM, Long M. Mutational bias shaping fly copy number variation: implications for genome evolution. Trends Genet. 2010 Jun; 26(6):243-7. View in: PubMed

  49. Raleigh DR, Marchiando AM, Zhang Y, Shen L, Sasaki H, Wang Y, Long M, Turner JR. Tight junction-associated MARVEL proteins marveld3, tricellulin, and occludin have distinct but overlapping functions. Mol Biol Cell. 2010 Apr 01; 21(7):1200-13. View in: PubMed

  50. Arguello JR, Zhang Y, Kado T, Fan C, Zhao R, Innan H, Wang W, Long M. Recombination yet inefficient selection along the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup's fourth chromosome. Mol Biol Evol. 2010 Apr; 27(4):848-61. View in: PubMed

  51. Vibranovski MD, Lopes HF, Karr TL, Long M. Stage-specific expression profiling of Drosophila spermatogenesis suggests that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation drives genomic relocation of testis-expressed genes. PLoS Genet. 2009 Nov; 5(11):e1000731. View in: PubMed

  52. Zhang Y, Lu S, Zhao S, Zheng X, Long M, Wei L. Positive selection for the male functionality of a co-retroposed gene in the hominoids. BMC Evol Biol. 2009 Oct 15; 9:252. View in: PubMed

  53. Fan C, Zhang Y, Yu Y, Rounsley S, Long M, Wing RA. The subtelomere of Oryza sativa chromosome 3 short arm as a hot bed of new gene origination in rice. Mol Plant. 2008 Sep; 1(5):839-50. View in: PubMed

  54. Zhu Z, Zhang Y, Long M. Extensive structural renovation of retrogenes in the evolution of the Populus genome. Plant Physiol. 2009 Dec; 151(4):1943-51. View in: PubMed

  55. Li Z, Liu M, Zhang L, Zhang W, Gao G, Zhu Z, Wei L, Fan Q, Long M. Detection of intergenic non-coding RNAs expressed in the main developmental stages in Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jul; 37(13):4308-14. View in: PubMed

  56. Vibranovski MD, Zhang Y, Long M. General gene movement off the X chromosome in the Drosophila genus. Genome Res. 2009 May; 19(5):897-903. View in: PubMed

  57. Xiao W, Liu H, Li Y, Li X, Xu C, Long M, Wang S. A rice gene of de novo origin negatively regulates pathogen-induced defense response. PLoS One. 2009; 4(2):e4603. View in: PubMed

  58. Kaessmann H, Vinckenbosch N, Long M. RNA-based gene duplication: mechanistic and evolutionary insights. Nat Rev Genet. 2009 Jan; 10(1):19-31. View in: PubMed

  59. Arguello JR, Fan C, Wang W, Long M. Origination of chimeric genes through DNA-level recombination. Genome Dyn. 2007; 3:131-146. View in: PubMed

  60. Emerson JJ, Cardoso-Moreira M, Borevitz JO, Long M. Natural selection shapes genome-wide patterns of copy-number polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 2008 Jun 20; 320(5883):1629-31. View in: PubMed

  61. Dai H, Chen Y, Chen S, Mao Q, Kennedy D, Landback P, Eyre-Walker A, Du W, Long M. The evolution of courtship behaviors through the origination of a new gene in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 27; 105(21):7478-83. View in: PubMed

  62. Fan C, Chen Y, Long M. Recurrent tandem gene duplication gave rise to functionally divergent genes in Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 2008 Jul; 25(7):1451-8. View in: PubMed

  63. Shiao MS, Liao BY, Long M, Yu HT. Adaptive evolution of the insulin two-gene system in mouse. Genetics. 2008 Mar; 178(3):1683-91. View in: PubMed

  64. Yang S, Arguello JR, Li X, Ding Y, Zhou Q, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Zhao R, Brunet F, Peng L, Long M, Wang W. Repetitive element-mediated recombination as a mechanism for new gene origination in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2008 Jan; 4(1):e3. View in: PubMed

  65. Havlioglu N, Wang J, Fushimi K, Vibranovski MD, Kan Z, Gish W, Fedorov A, Long M, Wu JY. An intronic signal for alternative splicing in the human genome. PLoS One. 2007 Nov 28; 2(11):e1246. View in: PubMed

  66. Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny. Nature. 2007 Nov 08; 450(7167):203-18. View in: PubMed

  67. Shiao MS, Khil P, Camerini-Otero RD, Shiroishi T, Moriwaki K, Yu HT, Long M. Origins of new male germ-line functions from X-derived autosomal retrogenes in the mouse. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Oct; 24(10):2242-53. View in: PubMed

  68. Long M. Side effects of Tamiflu: clues from an Asian single nucleotide polymorphism. Cell Res. 2007 Apr; 17(4):309-10. View in: PubMed

  69. Fan C, Long M. A new retroposed gene in Drosophila heterochromatin detected by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. J Mol Evol. 2007 Feb; 64(2):272-83. View in: PubMed

  70. Dai H, Yoshimatsu TF, Long M. Retrogene movement within- and between-chromosomes in the evolution of Drosophila genomes. Gene. 2006 Dec 30; 385:96-102. View in: PubMed

  71. Wang W, Zheng H, Fan C, Li J, Shi J, Cai Z, Zhang G, Liu D, Zhang J, Vang S, Lu Z, Wong GK, Long M, Wang J. High rate of chimeric gene origination by retroposition in plant genomes. Plant Cell. 2006 Aug; 18(8):1791-802. View in: PubMed

  72. Arguello JR, Chen Y, Yang S, Wang W, Long M. Origination of an X-linked testes chimeric gene by illegitimate recombination in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2006 May; 2(5):e77. View in: PubMed

  73. Zhang J, Long M, Li L. Translational effects of differential codon usage among intragenic domains of new genes in Drosophila. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 May 01; 1728(3):135-42. View in: PubMed

  74. Zhang J, Dean AM, Brunet F, Long M. Evolving protein functional diversity in new genes of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 16; 101(46):16246-50. View in: PubMed

  75. Thornton K, Long M. Excess of amino acid substitutions relative to polymorphism between X-linked duplications in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Evol. 2005 Feb; 22(2):273-84. View in: PubMed

  76. Betrán E, Emerson JJ, Kaessmann H, Long M. Sex chromosomes and male functions: where do new genes go? Cell Cycle. 2004 Jul; 3(7):873-5. View in: PubMed

  77. Wang W, Thornton K, Emerson JJ, Long M. Nucleotide variation and recombination along the fourth chromosome in Drosophila simulans. Genetics. 2004 Apr; 166(4):1783-94. View in: PubMed

  78. Wang W, Yu H, Long M. Duplication-degeneration as a mechanism of gene fission and the origin of new genes in Drosophila species. Nat Genet. 2004 May; 36(5):523-7. View in: PubMed

  79. Emerson JJ, Kaessmann H, Betrán E, Long M. Extensive gene traffic on the mammalian X chromosome. Science. 2004 Jan 23; 303(5657):537-40. View in: PubMed

  80. Long M, Betrán E, Thornton K, Wang W. The origin of new genes: glimpses from the young and old. Nat Rev Genet. 2003 Nov; 4(11):865-75. View in: PubMed

  81. Betrán E, Long M. Dntf-2r, a young Drosophila retroposed gene with specific male expression under positive Darwinian selection. Genetics. 2003 Jul; 164(3):977-88. View in: PubMed

  82. Long M, Deutsch M, Wang W, Betrán E, Brunet FG, Zhang J. Origin of new genes: evidence from experimental and computational analyses. Genetica. 2003 Jul; 118(2-3):171-82. View in: PubMed

  83. Betrán E, Thornton K, Long M. Retroposed new genes out of the X in Drosophila. Genome Res. 2002 Dec; 12(12):1854-9. View in: PubMed

  84. Betrán E, Long M. Expansion of genome coding regions by acquisition of new genes. Genetica. 2002 May; 115(1):65-80. View in: PubMed

  85. Llopart A, Comeron JM, Brunet FG, Lachaise D, Long M. Intron presence-absence polymorphism in Drosophila driven by positive Darwinian selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 11; 99(12):8121-6. View in: PubMed

  86. Thornton K, Long M. Rapid divergence of gene duplicates on the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome. Mol Biol Evol. 2002 Jun; 19(6):918-25. View in: PubMed

  87. Betrán E, Wang W, Jin L, Long M. Evolution of the phosphoglycerate mutase processed gene in human and chimpanzee revealing the origin of a new primate gene. Mol Biol Evol. 2002 May; 19(5):654-63. View in: PubMed

  88. Wang W, Brunet FG, Nevo E, Long M. Origin of sphinx, a young chimeric RNA gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Apr 02; 99(7):4448-53. View in: PubMed

  89. Wang W, Thornton K, Berry A, Long M. Nucleotide variation along the Drosophila melanogaster fourth chromosome. Science. 2002 Jan 04; 295(5552):134-7. View in: PubMed

  90. Long M. Evolution of novel genes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001 Dec; 11(6):673-80. View in: PubMed

  91. Long M, Thornton K. Gene duplication and evolution. Science. 2001 Aug 31; 293(5535):1551. View in: PubMed

  92. Long M, Rosenberg C. Testing the "proto-splice sites" model of intron origin: evidence from analysis of intron phase correlations. Mol Biol Evol. 2000 Dec; 17(12):1789-96. View in: PubMed

  93. Long M. A new function evolved from gene fusion. Genome Res. 2000 Nov; 10(11):1655-7. View in: PubMed

  94. Wang W, Zhang J, Alvarez C, Llopart A, Long M. The origin of the Jingwei gene and the complex modular structure of its parental gene, yellow emperor, in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Evol. 2000 Sep; 17(9):1294-301. View in: PubMed

  95. Long M, Wang W, Zhang J. Origin of new genes and source for N-terminal domain of the chimerical gene, jingwei, in Drosophila. Gene. 1999 Sep 30; 238(1):135-41. View in: PubMed

  96. Long M, Deutsch M. Association of intron phases with conservation at splice site sequences and evolution of spliceosomal introns. Mol Biol Evol. 1999 Nov; 16(11):1528-34. View in: PubMed

  97. Deutsch M, Long M. Intron-exon structures of eukaryotic model organisms. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999 Aug 01; 27(15):3219-28. View in: PubMed